Shingle oak is a medium sized deciduous oak of the red oak group that typically grows in a conical form to 40-60' tall, with the crown broadening and rounding with age. Trunk diameter to 3'. Brownish gray bark develops shallow furrowing and ridging with age. Shingle oak is native primarily from Pennsylvania to Iowa and Arkansas. It is particularly common in the Ohio River Valley. In Missouri, it occurs in a variety of locations thoughout the state, including upland dry woods, prairie margins, slopes, ravines, stream margins and bottomlands (Steyermark). Insignificant monoecious yellowish-green flowers in separate male and female catkins appear in spring as the leaves emerge. Fruits are rounded acorns (to 3/4" long), with scaly cups that extend to approximately 1/3 the acorn length. The acorns do not ripen until fall of the second year, as is the case with most oaks in the red oak group. Acorns are an important source of food for wildlife. Narrow, oblong, smooth-margined, glossy dark green leaves (3-6" long and 1-2" wide) are pale and pubescent beneath. Fall color is variable, sometimes producing attractive shades of yellow-brown to red-brown. Old leaves tend to persist on the tree throughout most of the winter.